The Muslim dynasty founded in 1171 by Saladin (q.v.), son of Ayub, when he ended Fatamid rule in Egypt (qq.v.). Saladin's kingdom, which also included Syria and Palestine (qq.v.) became a base of operations from which he attacked the Crusaders, defeating them at the Battle of Hattin (q.v.) in 1187. Ayyubid power ended with the expansion of the Mamluks (q.v.). In 1250 the Egyptian Ayyubids were overthrown by the Mamluks. The Mamluks overthrew the Ayyubids of Syria in 1260.

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